Diabetes is usually referred to as “the sugar” or “sugar diabetes,” but the correct term for calling the group of metabolic disorders that cause blood glucose (sugar) level to be too high is diabetes mellitus or diabetes for short. Diabetes is not caused by sugar; rather, it is everything to do with how your body handles the sugar you consume and what you do to manage the level of sugar in your blood.
About 30 million adults in the United States – 9.4 percent of the population – had some form of diabetes in 2015. It was the seventh leading cause of death that year. About 84.1 million adults had prediabetes. And worldwide, more than 422 million people suffered from diabetes in 2014.
TYPES AND PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS, DEFINED
There are number of disorders that are grouped under the umbrella of diabetes that are identified by their type. Each type is distinct in terms of what causes it, how it’s treated, and the complications that arise.
Have a quick look at each type of diabetes: definitions, some fast facts, and how common each type is in the U.S and worldwide.
PREDIABETES AND INSULIN RESISTANCE
Prediabetes is a disorder that can lead to type 2 diabetes. In order to understand what causes it, you have to understand how the body handles glucose and processes it into energy.
Glucose penetrates into the body primarily through the food and beverages you consume. The pancreas makes a hormone called insulin in order to help the glucose in your blood enter your muscles, fat, and liver to be used as energy. When the body does not use insulin effectively, your pancreas initially generates more insulin to overcome this resistance. But when your pancreas is not able to keep up with the demand, the result is hyperglycemia when glucose too high.
According to the Technology College of Osteopathic Medicine in Old Westbury, New York. Losing 7 percent of your body weight may help lower the risk of developing type 2 diabetes by 58 percent.
TYPE 2 DIABETES
As mentioned above, Type 2 diabetes is caused by insulin resistance between 90 percent, and 95 percent of all diabetes cases are Type 2, and nearly one in four people who have it don’t know they do.
Type 2 Diabetes is typically seen as the people who are older than 45. And it is strongly correlated with carrying excess weight. 9 out of 10 people worldwide who have type 2 diabetes are overweight and obese. Miraculously the majority of people who are overweight do not develop type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes can be treated through diet a lifestyle changes to lower your blood glucose levels and weight. In addition, many people with the condition monitor their blood glucose levels regularly, take oral medications, and even sometimes inject themselves with insulin.
TYPE 1 DIABETES
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder in which a person’s immune system attacks and destroys beta cells in the pancreas that make insulin. People who have Type 1 diabetes must inject themselves with insulin as their body in order to replace insulin in their body that doesn’t make, as well as monitor their glucose level daily.
To ensure enough glucose is available to provide energy for the growing fetus, pregnant women normally develop a certain amount of insulin resistance. Most of them do not go on to develop gestational diabetes, but it does occur in up to 14 percent of all pregnancies in the U.S.
The treatment for gestational diabetes involves making diet and lifestyle changes, but sometimes, doctors prescribe oral medications or insulin to help control symptoms of gestational diabetes.
SIGNS, SYMPTOMS, AND DIAGNOSIS
If you are suspecting that you might have prediabetes or diabetes because of the following symptoms, then you will have to visit your healthcare center immediately.
SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES
The following symptoms are generally the same regardless of the type of diabetes mellitus in question. They are
- Increased thirst
- Increased hunger
- Dry mouth
- Frequent urination
- Unexplained weight loss
- Blurred vision
- Dry and itchy skin
- Sores or cuts that heal slowly or not at all
DIFFERENT OPTIONS FOR DIABETES TREATMENT
If you have diagnosed with diabetes, then your treatment may vary based on the type of diabetes you have diagnosed with. But in one word that’s often closely linked with the condition is insulin.
Insulin is a kind of a treatment that is typically self – administered by injecting, up to several times a day using a needle, syringe, pen, or computerized pump with a needle that’s inserted under the skin of the abdomen and taped in place.
Another option instead of taking opting to insulin is a number of oral medications that are used to treat diabetes, particularly in people whose bodies still make some insulin.