Numerous other issues related to fertility and pregnancy also seem to be linked with subsequent cardiovascular disease, say the researchers, comprising staring periods early use to coalesced oral contraceptives, polycystic ovary syndrome, and early menopause.

But a longer length of breastfeeding was linked with a lessen risk of cardiovascular disease.

Earlier research was suggested that risk factors specific to women linked to cardiovascular disease and stroke, but clarity on the quality of the evidence is lacking and how the finding can be translated into public health and clinical practice.

A group of UK researchers looked for relevant research databases of published systematic reviews and meta – analyses that investigated links between reproductive factors in women of reproductive age and their later risk of cardiovascular disease.

Earlier investigation has suggested that risk factors detailed to women may be linked to cardiovascular disease and stroke, but lucidity on the quality of the proof is missing and on how the conclusion can be translated into public health and clinical practice.

A team of UK researchers searched relevant research databases for published systematic reviews and meta-analyses that investigated links between reproductive factors in women of reproductive age and their subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease.

A total of 32 reviews were incorporated, evaluating multiple risk factors over an average follow-up period of 7-10 years.

“The researchers found that several factors, including starting periods early (early menarche), use of combined oral contraceptives, polycystic ovary syndrome, miscarriage, stillbirth, pre-eclampsia, diabetes during pregnancy, pre-term birth, low birth weight, and early menopause were associated with an up to twofold risk of cardiovascular outcomes.

Pre-eclampsia was associated with a fourfold risk of heart failure.

Possible explanations for these associations include family medical history, genetics, weight, high blood pressure and cholesterol levels, and chemical imbalances from use of hormonal contraceptives.

However, no association was found between cardiovascular disease outcomes and current use of progesterone only contraceptives, use of non-oral hormonal contraceptive agents, or fertility treatment.

What’s more, breastfeeding was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease.

The researchers point to some limitations, such as missing data and the fact that reviews were largely based on observational evidence, so they cannot rule out the possibility that other unmeasured (confounding) factors may have had an effect.

However, they say the evidence reported in this umbrella review suggests that, from menarche to menopause, the reproductive profile of women is associated with their future risk of cardiovascular disease.

It also provides clarity on the quality of the evidence, identifies gaps in evidence and practice, and provides recommendations that could be incorporated into guidelines, such as incorporating reproductive risk factors as part of the risk assessment for cardiovascular disease, they conclude.” As per the reports.